BYU Authors: David D. Allred
and Qi Wang, published in Materials Research Society
Laser Raman spectroscopy has been found to be useful for characterizing amorphous semiconductor multilayers, especially the interfaces of multilayers. Recently, we have extended this technique to the characterization of magnetron sputtered multilayers commonly used as reflectors in soft x-ray optics. Unlike the multilayers previously studied which contained only semiconductors and dielectrics, these are generally semiconductor/metal multilayers. We report here on the Raman characterization of the most common class of multilayers used in soft x-ray optics, those that contain a high density metal like tungsten interspersed with layers of carbon. In all of the metal/carbon multilayers the dominate feature in the Raman spectra is due to a-C. The a-C spectra consists of a broad peak at about 1560 cm-1 (G-peak) and a shoulder at about 1400 cm-1 (D-peak). This can be deconvoluted with Gaussian line shapes to yield two peaks (one at about 1560 to 1570 cm-1 and the other at about 1380 to 1420 cm-1). Among the W/C multilayer samples peak positions and relative magnitudes changed little with carbon thickness over the range of 1 to 12 nm. Significant differences are, however, seen as the identity of the metal component is altered or, especially, as the preparations are varied. For example, the intensity ratio of the D-peak to G-peak was much larger for multilayer samples prepared under conditions of good plasma confinement.