Selected Publications

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BYU Authors: Ming Cai, Qi Wang, David D. Allred, Larry V. Knight, and Dorian M. Hatch, published in Proc. SPIE
Our group is studying the structure and interfaces of soft x-ray multilayers by various techniques including x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful since it is sensitive to the identity of individual bonds and thus can potentially characterize the abruptness of interfaces in multilayers. Blocking interfacial mixing is very important in achieving and maintaining high reflectivity. We report our studies of the as-deposited and postannealed structure of Mo/Si and W/C multilayers. A high normal- incidence, peak reflectance is mandatory for imaging applications that involve many reflections. The reported theoretical and achieved reflectances of the Mo/Si system are 80% and 65%, respectively. This loss of 15% can bring about a six-fold loss in system throughput in the eight-reflection system contemplated. The interfaces in the Mo/Si system are thought to play a significant role in the degrading reflectance so characterization techniques which have interfacial sensitivity are particularly important. The Mo/Si multilayer system is susceptible to Raman characterization since both the a-Si spacer layer and the MoSi2 compound which forms at the interface have Raman active modes. In this paper we report the first Raman studies, to the best of our knowledge, of the a-Si layers and their crystallization and the crystallization of the Mo/Si interface of the multilayer brought about by a one-hour 1000 degree(s)C anneal. These changes are apparent in the Raman spectra before they can be unambiguously detected by x-ray diffraction.
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BYU Authors: W. I. Karain, L. V. Knight, and D. D. Allred, published in Nanostruct. Mat.
We have produced arrays of 10,000 sharp p-type silicon points using an etch plus oxidation method. These points were used as electron emitters. No high vacuum cesiation or high temperature cleaning was needed to observe the electron emission. These are seen to be photosensitive sources of electrons at 200 K and 300 K. They were also used to produce AlKα x-rays. This constitutes the first use of etched, point arrays for generating electrons for x-ray sources.
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BYU Authors: Cheryl Barnett Davis, David D. Allred, and Bret C. Hess, published in Phys. Rev. B
We have studied at cryogenic temperatures photoluminescence features which lie more than 0.15 eV below the band edge in ZnxCd1-xTe (0 less-than-or-equal-to x less-than-or-equal-to 0.09) crystals. The same features, namely a defect band which lies at about 0.13-0.20 eV below the band-gap energy and a peak at 1.1 eV, that are observed in pure CdTe samples are observed in these alloy materials. In annealed samples we observe that the 1.1-eV feature, which has been attributed to tellurium vacancies, increases with fast cooling. Increased concentrations of tellurium vacancies can be understood in terms of the phase diagram of CdTe which indicates that higher concentrations of excess Cd appear in CdTe quenched from high temperatures. We also observe an absorption transition near 1.1 eV by photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PTDS). The PTDS phase shifts show that the deep defect is a bulk effect rather than a surface effect. The well-defined absorption peak suggests that the states contributing to the 1.1-eV transition are both localized. Our results also suggest that the defect band which lies 0.13 eV below the band gap (1.48 eV in CdTe) may also be related to tellurium vacancies. However, the fact that the ratio of intensities between this defect band and the 1.1-eV feature is highly variable suggests that the relationship is not simple. The origin of the defect band and its phonon replicas remains controversial.
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BYU Authors: Qi Wang and D. D. Allred, published in Phys. Rev. B
In the first-order Raman spectrum of amorphous carbon (a-C) there is a low-frequency feature in the 200-900-cm-1 region. This feature is characteristic of the highly disordered amorphous-carbon materials. We note that the intensity of this feature is very sensitive to the thermal history of samples, thus suggesting that it is an important measure of the degree of disorder of the a-C materials. We also discuss the relationship between this feature and the phonon density of states of graphite.
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BYU Authors: F. Yuan, Y. Shi, L. V. Knight, R. T. Perkins, and D. D. Allred, published in Thin Solid Films
We are studying the possibility of producing precision, aspherical mirrors for X-rays and visible light. Our study examines the use of ultrastructure processing to replace mechanical methods of material removal. The method starts with a chemically-mechanically polished, flat silicon wafer. The aim is to preserve atomic scale smoothness of the surface wafer while the wafer is bent to a desired figure. We report measurements of the mechanical properties of various stressing layers. This involves measuring the deformation of several thin silicon wafers coated with chemically vapor deposited nickel and boron films of known thickness. We have found that, under normal conditions, the film does not add to the microroughness of the substrate on either the front or the back surfaces. Film and substrate thicknesses, however, vary by as much as 10%. This is the present limit on figure accuracy. We have developed a model that describes bending of B/Si and Ni/Si structures. The model relates stress and Young's modulus to the measured thickness of the film, and the thickness and curvature of the substrate. This approach is used to measure the stress and Young's modulus for boron and nickel films. The Young's modulus E(f) was 3.05 x 10(12) Pa for the boron films and 1.4 x 10(10) Pa for the nickel films. From the relationship developed and verified for predicting the radii of curvature of the substrate, it may be possible to define a film thickness pattern which would provide a desired optical figure.
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BYU Authors: David D. Allred, Ming Cai, Qi Wang, and Dorian M. Hatch, published in J. X-ray Sci. Technol.
Raman spectra are reported from MoSi2 polycrystalline powder and soft x-ray Mo/Si multilayers. The sharp lines at 323 and 438 cm−1 are all due to crystalline MoSi2. These lines in the powder sample intensify with annealing. The Raman spectra of as-deposited multilayers shows a broad asymmetric peak, highest at about 480 cm−1. We attribute this to α-Si which is highly disordered. In contrast to α-Si in semiconductor/semiconductor and semiconductor/dielectric multilayers, in the Mo/Si samples the Raman signal can vanish after modest heating. This provides evidence that the composition of the silicon component of the multilayer changes even with 200°C annealing. Further annealing also produces the signature for crystalline MoSi2 in the multilayer samples. This is the first report of the characterization of Mo/Si soft x-ray multilayers by Raman spectroscopy, and it indicates that Raman spectroscopy may be an effective technique for characterizing these soft x-ray multilayers and may be useful in studying their interfaces.