Selected Publications

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BYU Authors: D. D. Allred, published in Proc. SPIE
High infrared reflectance, coupled with high solar absorptance, is required for efficient photothermal conversion. Converters can be fabricated by depositing an absorber on a highly reflecting metal. The absorber functions in the visible, yet becomes transparent in the near infrared, allowing the metal to suppress the thermal emittance. Economic considerations demand the use of thin films, rather than bulk materials. The thin film reflector must be capable of withstanding high temperatures of operation. Compatibility of the re-flector with the substrate below, and the absorber above, is required for long-time service. Highly reflective silver films suffer reflectance losses by agglomeration, and require stabilization layers. Refractory materials such as molybdenum avoid agglomeration at temperatures of operation of photothermal converters. Unlike other deposition methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can produce molybdenum films with an infrared reflectance rivaling that of bulk molybdenum. CVD is a non-vacuum based technology with potential for sequential throughput fabrication. Studies are being undertaken to determine how sensitively the reflectance reacts to inclusions of impurities into the molybdenum. Thin film passivators deposited on the molybdenum prevent reflectance losses induced by oxidation, and insure high temperature survival of optimal reflectance. Complete converter stacks have been annealed at 550°C for over 1000 hours in air.
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BYU Authors: D. D. Allred, published in Proc. SPIE
Efficient photothermal conversion requires surfaces of high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance. This can be accomplished by the tandem action of a good infrared reflector overlaid by a film of sufficient solar absorptance that is transparent in the infrared. Crystalline silicon is a suitable candidate for the absorber layer. Its indirect band gap, however, results in a shallow absorption edge that extends too far into the visible. In contrast, the absorption edge of amorphous silicon is steeper and located farther into the infrared, resulting in a larger solar absorptance. We report on the fabrication of amorphous silicon absorbers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Their optical and structural properties are determined as a function of the deposition temperature. We describe the effects of a progressive crystallization during anneal above 650 C and report the performance of converter stacks that are identical "twins" except for the use of a polycrystalline silicon absorber in one and an amorphous absorber in the other.
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BYU Authors: D. D. Allred, published in Nucl. Instr. Meth.

The application of nuclear reaction techniques to hydrogen analysis problems in metallurgical, mineralogical and semiconductor areas is described. Hydrogen analyses and profiles obtained with both the 1H(19F, αγ)16O and 1H(15N, αγ)12C reactions are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis will be given to interpretive problems associated with analyzing the data. Various corrections to the data will be discussed, including off-resonance cross-section corrections and lower energy resonance corrections. Both crystalline and amorphous materials are examined. The hydrogen content of electrodeposited hard gold films has been determined as a function of plating conditions. Hydrogen contents as high as 9 atom % have been measured. The hydrogen profile of natural and synthetic SiO2 samples was determined. Hydrogen was found to be quite stable in amorphous silica samples but highly mobile in crystalline quartz samples under the analysis conditions. A hydrogen depth profile for a film of glow discharge deposited amorphous silicon (∼4500 Å thick) has been obtained and will be compared with a profile measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) on the same sample.

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BYU Authors: D. D. Allred, published in Nucl. Instr. Meth.

Over the last few years many ion beam techniques have been reported for the profiling of hydrogen in materials. We have evaluated nine of these using similar samples of hydrogen ion-implanted into silicon. When possible the samples were analysed using two or more techniques to confirm the ion-implanted accuracy. We report the results of this work which has produced a consensus profile of H in silicon which is useful as a calibration standard. The analytical techniques used have capabilities ranging from very high depth resolution (≈50Å) and high sensitivity (< 1 ppm) to deep probes for hydrogen which can sample throughout thin sheets (up to 0.2 mm thick).

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BYU Authors: D. D. Allred, published in Phys. Chem. Miner.
The nuclear reaction 19F(1H, αγ) 16O has been used to determine the hydrogen concentration in natural and synthetic quartz samples. The depth-profile of the hydrogen concentration in these samples has been determined in detail for the smoky and X o quartzes. These profiles exhibit a region of high hydrogen concentration in the near surface region (down to a depth of ∼2000Å), with a lower concentration in the bulk of the sample. The results provide a plausible explanation for the substantial disagreement between previous hydrogen analysis in these quartzes by other techniques. Evidence for hydrogen mobility in crystalline quartz under ion beam bombardment is presented and discussed.
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BYU Authors: D. D. Allred, published in Appl. Phys. Lett.
Depth profiles for hydrogen in amorphous silicon have been determined by the use of resonantnuclear reactions [1H(15N,αγ)12C and 1H(19F,αγ)16O] and by secondary ion mass spectroscopy(SIMS). Independent calibration procedures were used for the two techniques. Measurements were made on the same amorphous silicon film to provide a direct comparison of the two hydrogen analysis techniques. The hydrogen concentration in the bulk of the film was determined to be about 9 at.% H. The SIMS results agree with the resonantnuclear reaction results to within 10%, which demonstrates that quantitative hydrogen depth profiles can be obtained by SIMSanalysis for materials such as amorphous silicon.